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Everything There Is to Know About Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water

Water Quality

Everything There Is to Know About Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water
Trihalomethanes are a group of volatile and potentially toxic chemical compounds formed when water is treated with chlorine, which then reacts with organic matter in water. Trihalomethane compounds are colorless and evaporate from the water into the air. At elevated levels, trihalomethanes have been associated with negative health effects like cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes. We have outlined everything there is to know about trihalomethanes in this post. Examples of Trihalomethanes There are four significant trihalomethanes found in disinfected drinking water, and their combined concentration is known as total trihalomethanes (TTHM). To understand trihalomethanes, it is important to first consider methane, which is a single carbon with four bonds linked to four hydrogen molecules (CH₄). To make a trihalomethane, three of those hydrogen atoms are removed and replaced with three halogens. A halogen is any element from the seventeenth column of the periodic table. If all three of the substituted halogens are chlorides, it creates chloroform (CHCI₃). If all three molecules are bromide, it creates bromoform (CHBr₃). One bromide and two chlorides make bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl₂). Therefore, trihalomethanes are a group of four chemicals: bromoform, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and dibromochloromethane. Bromoform Bromoform is a colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. It is denser than water and slightly soluble. It has been classified as a human carcinogen and is toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption.Bromodichloromethane Bromodichloromethane is colorless and dissolves in water but also quickly evaporates into the air. Bromodichloromethane was formerly used as a flame retardant or solvent for fats and waxes because of its high density for mineral separation. It is harmful if ingested and causes liver and kidney damage.Chloroform Chloroform is a colorless liquid that quickly evaporates into a gas. Chloroform is harmful to the eyes, skin, liver, kidneys, and nervous system. These chemical compounds can be toxic if swallowed or inhaled, and exposure to chloroform could also cause cancer.Dibromochloromethane Dibromochloromethane is a colorless to yellow liquid with a sweetish odor. It has been classified as a possible human carcinogen. How Do Trihalomethanes Affect the Human Body? The standards of drinking water are called maximum contaminant level or MCL. MCLs have been put in place to reduce the risk of chemicals in drinking water. Some MCLs limit the levels of chemicals that pose a long-term risk, and others limit the daily amount consumed for chemicals that pose an immediate risk. The trihalomethane MCL is set at a safe level that balances long-term health risks but also keeps the drinking water safe from bacterial contamination. The Environmental Protection Agency has stated that the maximum level of trihalomethanes in large surface public water systems is 80 parts per billion. Individuals could be exposed to trihalomethanes in water by ingesting them or absorbing them through the skin. Trihalomethanes easily vaporize into the air, so inhalation exposure to these compounds can be significant, especially when bathing and showering. High levels of trihalomethanes are dangerous. Trihalomethanes have been associated with negative health effects. People who consume trihalomethanes over many years have an increased risk of developing cancer. These chlorination by-products have also been linked to heart, lung, liver, kidney, and central nervous system damage. Pregnant women are also at a greater risk as trihalomethanes have been shown to negatively impact reproduction and cause miscarriages. Can You Remove Trihalomethanes From Drinking Water? Fortunately, trihalomethanes can be removed from drinking water. The easiest way to reduce or eliminate trihalomethanes from drinking water is to use a water pitcher with a carbon filter or install a tap-mounted carbon filter. Other methods include reverse osmosis, enhanced coagulation, UV filters, and water softeners. In Summary The chlorination process is essential for purifying water to make it safe for human consumption. The levels of chlorine in water are carefully monitored to ensure they remain at a safe standard. However, the chlorination process also produces trihalomethanes, which can be harmful to human health. Trihalomethanes are known carcinogens and increase the risk of cancer and miscarriage in pregnant women. It is recommended to have your water tested to see the level of trihalomethanes.
How to Remove Trihalomethanes From Drinking Water

Water Quality

How to Remove Trihalomethanes From Drinking Water
Trihalomethanes (THMs) form when chlorine reacts with the organic matter in water. The four trihalomethanes are bromoform, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and dibromochloromethane. Trihalomethanes are dangerous at elevated levels and have been shown to increase the risk of cancer, miscarriages, pregnancy issues, and heart, lung, liver, kidney, and central nervous system damage. In this post, we have outlined the best methods for removing trihalomethanes from your drinking water. How Are You Exposed to THMs in Drinking Water? You can be exposed to trihalomethanes by consuming water through a public water supply, using tap water for cooking, or absorbing it through the skin. Trihalomethanes vaporize into the air, so exposure to these compounds can also occur through inhalation, especially when showering and bathing. How to Get Rid of THMs in Water There are various methods you can use to remove trihalomethanes from your drinking water. Enhanced Coagulation This method is the best option for controlling the level of THMs at a water treatment plant and removing the precursors by enhancing coagulation. The enhanced coagulation process optimizes the filtration process to maximize the elimination of precursors. This is done by reducing the pH level to as low as 4, using ferric coagulants instead of alum, and increasing the coagulant’s feed rates. Carbon Filters This is one of the most convenient ways to eliminate THMs in your tap water. Carbon filtration uses charcoal or activated carbon to remove contaminants. Carbon filtration can be done using a water pitcher with a carbon filter or installing carbon filters on your taps. Activated charcoal can also be used in your whole house's water filtration system. When purchasing a carbon filter, ensure it is certified to remove THMs. Reverse Osmosis Reverse osmosis water filtration systems also work well to remove THMs from water. The reverse osmosis process involves water being pushed through a semipermeable membrane that filters out unwanted particles and contaminants. Reverse osmosis removes THMs, lead, chlorine, fluoride, pesticides, chloramine, detergents, etc. Boiling Boiling your water is a simple method to drastically reduce the levels of trihalomethane in your water. Boiling water for one minute can reduce the trihalomethane concentrate by 75 percent. Boiling water for five minutes removes 100 percent of the trihalomethanes. How Do I Know How Many THMs Are in My Water? You can test your water for trihalomethanes using the following methods. Observational Self-Testing This testing is done through simple observations that you can make using your own senses like taste and smell. The obvious signs of high trihalomethane levels are a strong chlorine smell or the water smelling like diluted pond or lake water. DIY Water Testing After observing the water, you can use a testing kit to confirm if your observations were correct. Most testing kits consist of dip tests that will allow you to monitor the THM levels in your water. Information Water Testing This is done by an accredited water testing laboratory. You can order a testing kit to prepare a sample to submit to a lab. By using a lab, you can trust that a certified water expert will analyze your sample. Certified Water Testing This option involves a water professional visiting your home to prepare the sample and then sending it to a lab for testing. This form of testing will give you the highest level of assurance in the accuracy of your test results. This option can also be used in legal cases. In Summary If you have high levels of trihalomethanes in your drinking water, you can begin by using the above methods to purify your water. Carbon filtration is considered to be the most thorough when it comes to removing chemical compounds. Other options consist of working with an authority or water company to flush the lines.
How to Remove Chlorine From Your Tap Water

Water Quality

How to Remove Chlorine From Your Tap Water
Chlorine is one of the most commonly produced chemicals in the United States. Chlorine is a chemical element and is one of the most common substances on earth. Chlorine is a common ingredient in many products because of its disinfecting and bleaching abilities. This is why chlorine is used in swimming pools and drinking water—it kills bacteria and keeps the water clean. Most water treatment plants use chlorine to disinfect their water. When added in the right amounts, chlorine effectively kills bacteria and viruses. When mixed with other elements, chlorine is quite safe. Pure chlorine is very rare and takes the form of a yellow-green gas. This gas is very poisonous and can even be lethal. How to Test if There Is Chlorine in Your Tap Water The easiest way to test the chlorine levels in your tap water is to use test strips. It is as simple as filling a glass with tap water, following the instructions on how to dip the strip, waiting a few seconds for the indicator color to appear, and then comparing the color to the chart provided. Chlorine test strips can be purchased from any pool shop or local grocery store. How to Measure the Amount of Chlorine in Water Chlorine test strips can tell you the chlorine level in your tap water, but understanding these results can be tricky. The level of chlorine is measured in parts per million (PPM). The optimal concentration of chlorine in drinking water is between 0.2 PPM and 4 PPM. Anything over 4 PPM can cause negative health effects. After dipping the strip into a glass of water, you need to interpret the test strip results: 0 PPM: Not optimal This means the water has not been disinfected and could contain bacteria and viruses.0.5 PPM: Optimal This level ensures that the water will remain bacteria-free, even if new bacteria are introduced.1 PPM: Good This level ensures that water will remain bacteria-free, even if new bacteria are introduced.2 PPM: Not optimal This level means that the water will have an unpleasant taste and odor.More than 2 PPM: Dangerous While chlorine water is not considered dangerous until it reaches over 4 PPM, water with a level of 2 PPM and above will taste and smell like chemicals. Long-term consumption could have negative health effects. How to Get Chlorine Out of Water There are a few different methods of removing chlorine from your water, including: Boiling Your Water Boiling water for 15 minutes will release all the chlorine from your tap water. At room temperature, chlorine weighs less than air and will automatically evaporate off without boiling. However, boiling the water speeds up the chlorine removal process. Reverse Osmosis The process of reverse osmosis effectively removes up to 98 percent of chlorine in drinking water. During this process, water is pushed through a very fine membrane that catches harmful compounds. Ultraviolet Light Ultraviolet radiation is an effective way to remove chlorine and destroy chloramines through photodegradation or photolysis. Photodegradation is the process in which harmful compounds like chlorine are broken down by light, particularly UV light or sunlight. Ultraviolet light can also be used to make structured water, which contains less chlorine. Carbon Filters Activated carbon filters are very effective at removing chlorine from drinking water. When the water flows through the active carbon filters, the chemicals stick to the carbon. This results in purer water. Can You Remove Chlorine From Water Without a Filter? If you don’t have a water filter, you can leave your drinking water to stand. Chlorine is a compound that will evaporate from standing water if the air is warm enough. Chlorine is considered to be extremely volatile and will evaporate from your drinking water without much issue, but the time it takes to do so is dependent on a few factors. The effectiveness of removing chlorine from drinking water depends on variables like the water temperature, air temperature, pH, the shape and size of the container, how much water is exposed to the air, and the chlorine content. In general, 2 PPM of chlorine will take up to four and a half days or around 110 hours to evaporate from 10 gallons of standing water. In Summary Chlorine is used in drinking water to purify it and kill harmful microorganisms. Governmental organizations carefully monitor chlorine levels in drinking water to ensure it is safe for human consumption. However, if you want to remove chlorine from your drinking water, it can be done using a few different methods, including boiling, filters, and letting it stand.
Is Reverse Osmosis Water Good for You?

Water Quality

Is Reverse Osmosis Water Good for You?
Reverse osmosis is a method of filtering water that removes many contaminants, including heavy metals and sediments like chlorine, salt, viruses, bacteria, and microorganisms. This process works by pushing water through a semi-permeable or synthetic membrane. Reverse osmosis water is considered to be one of the cleanest forms of water. However, along with removing potentially harmful compounds, reverse osmosis also removes important minerals from water. In this article, we have outlined the benefits and health risks that come from drinking reverse osmosis water. Is Reverse Osmosis Water Beneficial to Your Health? There are two strong answers to this question. The World Health Organization (WHO) warns that drinking reverse osmosis water is unsuitable for long-term human consumption and could negatively impact human health. On the other hand, people believe that reverse osmosis water is beneficial because it is purified and free from potentially harmful compounds that could cause illness and disease. What Is Removed From Water by Reverse Osmosis? Reverse osmosis filters remove organic matter, sediment, sodium, copper, lead, calcium, iron, magnesium, metal ions, aqueous salts, bacteria, viruses, and essential minerals. Reverse osmosis also reduces fluoride, arsenic, chlorine, nitrate, and trihalomethane levels. Advantages of Reverse Osmosis Water The advantages of reverse osmosis water include the following. Fewer Contaminants Reverse osmosis filters are very effective and used to treat water on a large scale in wastewater plants and on a small scale in homes. Reverse osmosis removes 98 percent of all contaminants from drinking water. Clean Water on Demand Reverse osmosis filters can be fitted directly onto your tap, providing clean drinking water on demand. Softer Water Water with a high mineral content is known as hard water. Hard water can cause scale, buildup in pipes, and other issues. Because reverse osmosis removes these minerals, it softens the water. Tastier Food The chemicals and minerals in unfiltered water can alter the taste of food when used in cooking. Many people report that reverse osmosis water results in better tasting food because it removes impurities and minerals. Reduced Risk of Illness and Disease Reverse osmosis water removes the potentially harmful microorganisms from water that could cause illness and disease. Disadvantages of Reverse Osmosis Water The disadvantages of reverse osmosis water include the following Unusual Taste One of the biggest disadvantages of reverse osmosis water is that it may have an unusual taste. Due to the removal of minerals, reverse osmosis can taste flat. Sometimes, the reverse osmosis process can also give water a fishy smell. Health Implications The WHO has warned that long-term consumption of reverse osmosis water could result in negative health effects. Reverse osmosis is essentially demineralized water, which leeches minerals from the body. Leeching minerals from the body means that the minerals consumed via food and vitamins are urinated away. Fewer minerals consumed and more minerals being excreted means negative side effects and health problems. It is believed that the reduced mineral intake from water cannot be completely compensated for through diet. People who drink reverse osmosis water as their main source of water could experience side effects like fatigue, muscle cramps, weakness, cardiovascular disorders, or hypertension in severe cases. Critics suggest that drinking reverse osmosis water also deprives the body of electrolytes. Reverse osmosis water throws off homeostasis in the body, which causes a 20 percent increase in the need to urinate. An unbalanced homeostasis system leads to increased levels of thirst. Can Reverse Osmosis Water Make You Dehydrated? Reverse osmosis has no electrolytes and a lower pH level. It is actually considered to be acidic, which has negative implications on the body. Reverse osmosis water does not hydrate the body as well as alkaline water, which could result in progressive dehydration. Should You Drink Reverse Osmosis Water? There are advantages and disadvantages to drinking reverse osmosis water. Reverse osmosis is a beneficial solution if you live in an area plagued by many water concerns, like excess herbicides, pesticides, or polluted water. It is also a good option for when you visit a place with questionable local water, like when you go on holiday. Eating a healthy, balanced diet and taking supplements could compensate for the loss of essential minerals. However, in the world we live in, most people don’t receive all the minerals they need from their food. Therefore, drinking reverse osmosis water could result in mineral deficiencies and negative health effects.
What Is Aerated Water?

Water Quality

What Is Aerated Water?
Why is aeration and vortexing beneficial for your hydration? Throughout this post we'll explore three core aspects of aerated water. Water. Life is impossible without it. As humans, who are primarily composed of water, drinking high-quality water is probably one of the most important things we can do to ensure our overall wellness. So Why Would You Want to Aerate/Swirl Your Water? In a moment, we'll talk about it more in depth, but here's the bottom line: vortexing affects the physical and chemical characteristics of water as well as taste, odor, texture, and quality. Let's dive right in and find out why and how. Aeration Hmm, Aeration Is What, Exactly? It is the process of bringing water and air into close contact, allowing it to absorb atmospheric oxygen and release volatile compounds. There are various methods to achieve aerated water, such as bobbles, falls, sprinkling, propeller, and vortex. The last, also known as swirling, is how nature constantly perfects water through its movements on and above the earth. So, How Does It Work? The swirling motion introduces atmospheric air into the water, allowing fresh oxygen to dissolve within it. The interface of water and air allows for maximal gas exchange and air circulation, which also helps evaporate and remove dissolved toxic gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) like chlorine, THMs, and CO2, as well as unwanted odors. A transfer between gas and water takes place on the surface as oxygen is introduced. Simultaneously, undesirable compounds are released and evaporate. The dissolved release of CO2 triggers a chemical chain reaction, and through this process, pH levels in the water are elevated. The swirling motion causes the aqueous CO2 (carbon dioxide) to becomes gas CO2 and leaves the water: CO2 (aq)->CO2 (gas) Carbonic acid (H2CO3) in the water then creates CO2 according to this reaction: H2CO3 ->CO2 + H2O Bicarbonate (HCO3–) in the water creates carbonic acid (H2CO3) according to this: HCO3– + H+->H2CO3 The net result: H+ (an acid) is consumed, pH levels go up, and the water is as pure, sweet, and tasty as nature intended. Photo by Nicholas Teoh on Unsplash The Physical Level: Living Water Let’s talk about Biomimicry. Biomimicry is the premise that earth's natural mechanisms provide the most efficient and elegant methods for life to thrive. In other words, mimicking the intelligence of nature is the best and most effective way to provide sustainable and optimal solutions. Nature Of Water - From The Vast Oceans To The Tiniest Single Droplet When you think about it, all water in nature performs according to the same principle. While flowing naturally, water always flows to its unique spiral motion. This is true of above ground and subterranean water, rivers, lakes, and waterfalls - from the vast seas to the tiniest single droplet. Water does not flow along the shortest possible path (straight line) — it spirals its way along the path of least resistance. Every flowing body of water, large and small, has the same equation and pattern of water movement. An illustration by Viktor Schauberger (*4) Modern water infrastructures, on the other hand, are characterized by stagnancy, such as plastic water bottles, or forced straight lines devoid of oxygen, as in standard pipes. Bottom line, both trappings of the water industry bring us unnatural, broken, or maybe we should say “traumatized” water, as opposed to its natural motion. Let It Flow To fix this, water should be allowed to move in its natural way. The flowing motion aerates and restructures the water - enhancing and preserving the freshness of living water. Fresh oxygen is vital for water quality and the quality of the life it sustains. In the absence of pollution, stagnant storage, piping, and other toxic human influences, natural water is clean, pristine, delicious and nourishing. Photo by Jonatan Lindemann on Unsplash Taste - Swirled Water Tastes - and Feels - Better The two processes described above enhance the water and return it to its equilibrium state — that is, saturated with oxygen, pH balanced, rejuvenated and revitalized(*5). In double-blind taste tests, 87% of subjects in our experiment perceived a clear, unmistakably improved, and sweet taste when compared to average water. Interestingly, child samplers were particularly perceptive to the differences in water quality. Other studies(*6) have confirmed that aerated water is indeed sweeter and more delicious. Aeration noticeably improves water’s taste, odor, and overall quality, as Mayu’s drinkers have stated over and over again. Did You Know? Aeration is a well-known water treatment method for introducing Oxygen and removing hazardous chemicals(*1); it has been in widespread use since the mid-1970s. The practice continues today as a standard procedure for water purification and cleaning. In Holland, for example, municipal water is aerated before reaching the end consumer. the World Health Organization recommends shaking and swirling the water stored in barrels after a serious water crisis for safety purposes(*2). ---- Like fire, water behaving naturally and elementally has mesmerized humans since the dawn of time. We recognize something in both water and fire that brings us back to the essential materials of life itself; water carries a profound impact on the human body and soul alike. We are, after all, mostly composed of water ourselves, and drinking is a human commonality shared by all races and cultures around the world. When water is elevated to its original and optimum state, it enhances the entire drinking experience. It's time to get back to that state. Give it a try. -------------------------------------------- References: “Water aeration has been used in water treatment for improving odor and taste, oxidation of iron and manganese, and removing carcinogenic and hazardous chemicals from water. These chemicals include volatile organics such as trihalomethanes, radon, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethane, chloroform, and toluene. As a result, water aeration may be the single most important water treatment process used in the 21st century.” (1)Water Sanitation (2)What Is the Water Cycle? (3)Illustration by Viktor Schauberger - (4)"Aeration of water has been practiced since ancient times and was believed to improve water quality by "sweetening" and "softening" it (Baker, 1948). It was later discovered that aeration indeed oxygenated anaerobic waters and that such a process would oxidize and precipitate reduced iron, manganese and sulfur, as well as strip volatile organic compounds, taste and odor compounds, and radon" Managing Water in the Home: Accelerated Health Gains from Improved Water, World Health Organization Geneva 2002. (5)Tastes and Odors in Water Supplies (6) Get our Swirl and see for yourself.
“Drinking Water the Way Nature Intended: The Story of Mayu Water”

Interview With Shay and Ze’Ev, Mayu Water Founders, (October 21, 2021).

Water Quality

“Drinking Water the Way Nature Intended: The Story of Mayu Water” Interview With Shay and Ze’Ev, Mayu Water Founders, (October 21, 2021).
Have You Ever Given Much Thought About the Water You Drink? We tend to focus more on the food we eat, ensuring our produce is organic and our meat is grass-fed—all free of toxins and contaminants, just like Nature intended. Yet how many of us think about how Nature intended us to drink our water? Take a moment to envision how water is found in natural settings. Imagine a river, a creek, or a spring. In Nature, water is always flowing, moving, and swirling. Even in large bodies of water, water always has an undercurrent of movement. As water flows, it collects minerals from the Earth. Water from a spring or a river isn’t just H2O molecules—it’s full of minerals like magnesium, sodium, zinc, and potassium that all have health benefits. Now imagine the water that comes out of your tap. To make its way to your home, it had to go through a water treatment process and long distances of pipes, where the water travels in straight lines and isn’t allowed its natural tendency to swirl. You might be asking why it’s important to drink water that has been allowed to move the way Nature intended. Let’s dive into that now! The Significance of Water Your body is made up of 60% water. Water is important for nearly every function in your body. While you get a lot of your hydration from the foods you eat, the quality of water you drink matters significantly. Unfortunately, many of our natural water sources are heavily contaminated, necessitating water treatments before ending up in our homes as tap water. However, tap water still contains a large number of contaminants, like pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and microplastics, which means we should be further filtering our tap water at home to safeguard our health. Yet because of all this filtration, tap water loses its natural “structure” and has been stripped of its mineral content. These minerals are necessary for your body’s cellular processes as well, and they’re an essential component of drinking water. To drink water the way Nature intended, it’s important to drink “structured” water that contains minerals. What Is Structured Water? “Structured” or “living” water is water that forms hexagonal, honeycomb-shaped lattices (identifiable via microscopy) as it flows, spirals, and aerates in natural water sources like springs. This structured water acts like a gel inside living cells, which allows it to have more cell-hydrating capabilities than plain tap water. Structured water is also found in plants (like your fruits and vegetables) as well as your own living cells. However, chemical sanitation and filtration de-structures water, rendering it essentially “lifeless,” as it has lost the living chemical structure that Nature imbued into it. So while filtered water is much healthier than tap water, it’s still not providing you with the benefits of living, structured water. So how can you restore structure to your tap water in alignment with the way water exists in Nature? The answer to this comes from Mayu Water, a company who is revolutionizing the way we drink water! The Story of Mayu Water I had the pleasure of meeting with Shay and Ze’ev, the founders of Mayu Water—virtually, of course, as they are located across the Mediterranean Sea in a tiny village in Israel. Shay and Ze’ev’s journey started when they set out to provide their young children with the best water possible. They realized we often give a lot of thought to what eat and what we put in our bodies, but we don’t put that same thought into the water we drink even though we consume a lot of water. In Israel (and many other parts of the world), much of the pipelines are filled with contaminants like asbestos and lead. These contaminants make their way into our drinking water, which is why filtering your water is so important. Ze’ev knew his tap water was full of these contaminants, so he started experimenting with different water filters. Even though he purified their water for his family, his 1-year-old daughter still didn’t want to drink it. He started to realize that the water must be missing something. So he and Shay eventually realized that what was needed was Nature’s influence on the water. Drinking Water the Way Nature Intended Shay and Ze’ev realized that water is always flowing, moving, and swirling in its natural settings.But what was the significance of this motion? They learned that the complex swirling motion of water creates aeration, which infuses oxygen back into the water. This swirling motion also aerates out carbon dioxide and volatile compounds like chlorine, naturally purifying it. Water also carries elements like minerals from one place to another as it travels, as it is the "blood of Earth,” as Shay so poetically worded. The combination of swirling and mineralization changes the taste of the water, making it naturally sweet and silky. Without minerals, water is like “an unripe fruit,” said Ze’ev. Water’s intrinsic movement allows it to pick up minerals as it travels. Yet water interacts with everything it comes into contact with, including pipes and contaminants we wouldn’t want to be drinking. The other problem with pipes is that they’re in a straight line. These pipes not only contaminate the water, but they confine water to a straight path that doesn’t allow it to swirl and aerate. So Shay and Ze’ev created the Mayu Swirl to mimic drinking water from a flowing river. The motion of the Mayu Swirl reflects the natural movement of a spring or river, restoring the inherent structure of water—the way Nature intended! The Wisdom of Nature Through their journey discovering how to create water the way Nature intended, Shay and Ze’ev fell in love with water. They began to see water as having its own intelligence, just like the rest of the natural world, and rediscovered the beautiful connection between water and human beings. They also noted the importance of cherishing water—that this influences how we absorb and assimilate water in our bodies. Shay and Ze’ev recognize that everything in Nature has a reason and is ultimately perfect in its expression; simultaneously beautiful and efficient. Water is one of these perfect expressions of Nature. Shay and Ze’ev designed the Mayu Swirl with high-quality materials that allow the water to be seen and to “give the water its full stage.” Just like watching a river flow, watching the swirling water in their Mayu Swirl has its own mesmerizing beauty. Their children will even stop and watch it, and ask to taste the water simply because it’s movement is so appealing to them. Nature’s wisdom is evident when you break down the water cycle and see how simple, efficient, and extraordinary it really is. In their own wisdom, Mayu Water designed their products to replicate Nature’s beautiful design. How Mayu Water Replicates Nature’s Design In Nature, water goes through a circular 3-phase cycle of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. As liquid water evaporates into the sky, it is naturally purified by the sun. The solids in the water stay behind as the water vapor rises—a natural filtration system! Water vapor condenses to form clouds (condensation). As water droplets accumulate in the clouds, the water absorbs minerals from the air. As it rains (precipitation), the raindrops keep absorbing elements in the air as they fall and then in the ground as the rainwater travels along the Earth. As the water flows and swirls on the Earth, it aerates, remineralizes, and becomes more structured—essentially infused with life. Mayu Water replicates Nature’s water cycle with their own 3-step process you can do at home: Purify the water (mimics evaporation): Filter your water with a high-quality filtration or reverse osmosis system to remove all the contaminants that water has picked up along its journey to your home.Remineralize (mimics condensation and water’s natural mineralization process): Add trace minerals back into your water.Aeration (mimics precipitation and water’s natural swirling process): Use the Mayu Swirl to swirl and aerate your water, restoring its innate structure. To swirl your water with the Mayu Swirl, simply fill the glass carafe up to the line (1.5 liters) and then add in liquid minerals before swirling. The mineral dissolve quickly in the water while it swirls for about 7-10 minutes. Mayu Water designed their mineral drops to align with the specific mineral composition of a spring without any preservatives or additives. Their concentrated trace mineral supplement allows for the structured water to come out to a similar concentration as a natural spring. Shay emphasized that it doesn’t matter where you live on this planet, that if you do the 3 steps outlined above, “you can have the same quality of water anywhere, everywhere.” Mayu Water’s Mission Mayu Water’s mission is to improve the “lives of people around the world by improving their connection to water.” Their goal is to help people all over the world drink water as Nature intended, no matter what quality of water they have available to them. Even if you don’t live by a spring, you can still have the ability to drink delicious, high-quality spring water. Shay and Ze’ev also wish to help humanity reduce their reliance on single-use plastic water bottles and the stress this puts on natural water sources. By creating your own spring water at home, there’s no need to purchase bottled water. Drinking high-quality water like that created from a Mayu Swirl can improve your health—as well as improving the health of all humanity and the Earth. By revolutionizing the way we drink water in a way that is both fun and fulfilling, we reconnect to water and honor it sacredness. In the process, reconnecting to water allows us to reconnect with all of Nature—and there’s profound healing in this reconnection. For you are of this Earth, and the Earth already has all the tools you could ever need to heal…including water. Get our Swirl and see for yourself.
Which Water Filter Should We Use?

Water Quality

Which Water Filter Should We Use?
Having learned about water and the water industry for nearly a decade, we are very often asked: what kind of water filter should I get in order to ensure drinking clean, healthy water? Our answer is always: it's complicated! A wide range of commercial filters and membranes are available. Many of them are good but none of them provide a perfect answer to everyone’s needs. We hope to shed light on this vital issue in this blog post. Water Is Life - Water Is the Universal Solvent We know that all life as we know it depends on water. If not for this crucial ingredient, the entire planet would just be dust floating in a dust bowl, like Mars or our closest neighbor, the Moon. Even so, water requires certain characteristics to sustain life. Did you know? Pure liquid water, that is H2O only, is actually rare to find on Earth. Sure, pure water molecules exist as vapor in the air and clouds, but once these accumulate to droplets, everything changes. Pure water is ”hungry”, also described as the “universal solvent” - it readily absorbs and dissolves more substances than any other liquid. This is essential to life because many of those dissolved substances nourish and enable healthy living. So, on one hand, those could be dissolved minerals in water, essential for the wellbeing of every cell in our body but they could also be heavy metals that are harmful to our health even at very low doses. Other contaminants include manufactured chemicals, natural-born elements such as antimony and arsenic, and more. Water can also harbor biological contaminants such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Do You Know What’s in Your Tap Water? One of the main disadvantages of centralized water distribution systems is the lack of information regarding their quality. Sure, your municipal water board takes pride in treating and delivering healthy water to your tap, and you may even receive quarterly reports about its quality. The problem is always what happens to the water on its way to your tap and what your water board is not testing for. It’s important to understand that many of our modern-day water quality crises are due to these issues. The Flint Water Crisis, for example, was brought on when a municipal water provider changed its water source to a new one. Both sources were sound and healthy but because of changes in chemical-physical attributes of the new water, lead from aging pipes leached into the drinking supply and poisoned an estimated 100,000 people. Physical Filtration These are the simplest forms of filters. These types of filters can usually reduce the concentration of contaminants but do not remove them completely. Here you can also find ceramic microporous gravity filters, mesh filters, disc filters, and more. Some are stand-alone while other products use physical filtration as the first step of a multi-step process. Physical filtration removes suspended materials floating in the water. Usual filtration sizes can be 5-15 µm (a µm is one-millionth of a meter or 0.000001m) for the polypropylene type candle filters down to 0.01µm for ultrafiltration membranes. Physical filtration acts as a barrier for suspended materials in the water. If the particle size is larger than the rated filtration size, they will usually be filtered and removed from drinking water. Nothing smaller than the filtration size or dissolved in the water will be filtered. So organic contaminants, heavy metals, bacteria (bacteria are around 1µm) and viruses that were in your tap water will still be there. We recommend this step as an important pre-filtration step before other filters such as activated charcoal and reverse osmosis. Activated Charcoal Filters A little known fact is the Egyptians discovered that storing water in charcoal, made it stay fresher and taste better, carbon has been a standard feature in water treatment and its centuries of popularity are testament to its effectiveness. Activated charcoal filters come in different shapes and sizes. There are some well-known offers on the markets in different configurations. Most well-known are the pitcher filters but carbon filters can also be found in under-the-sink, gravity-fed, and water bar systems. Activated charcoal is a great solution for removing chlorine and organic compounds from drinking water. Due to its humongous surface area (one pound of activated carbon contains a surface area of approximately 100 acres!) and the ability for chemical adsorption, chlorine is reduced and volatile organics which can include pesticide residues and others are adsorbed to the filter. Through this technology, bad tastes and odors, coming from chlorine and organic material are also neutralized. Many times activated charcoal is the second step of a multi-step treatment process which may also include physical filtration through polypropylene candle filters and ceramic microfiltration. Point of Use (PoU) reverse osmosis systems also use activated charcoal pre-filtration steps to neutralize chlorine as reverse osmosis membranes are easily damaged by chlorine. Activated charcoal filters by themselves are usually not effective at removing minerals and dissolved inorganic compounds. This is both good and bad. The good part is that nutritious minerals from your tap water pass through the filter but contaminants such as heavy metals (Lead, Mercury, Arsenic, and more) are left in the water. Because of this, many champions selling activated charcoal also include specialized resins for removing inorganics. These are usually legacy IP and should be evaluated separately. Another serious drawback of activated charcoal as a stand-alone filter comes from the reaction between adsorbed organic matter and activated chlorine. When these two react, they produce Trihalomethanes (THMs) such as chloroform and other disinfection byproducts known to be carcinogenic. The best way to minimize exposure to these bad boys is to change your activated carbon filter at vendor-recommended intervals and not keep an activated charcoal filter on your system for months on end. If your drinking water source is a lake or river, the risk of THM production is much higher due to the higher concentration of organic matter present. ​Distilled Water Distilled water is a type of purified water that has gone through the distillation process and removes contaminants as well as natural minerals, however, a little-known fact is that it is best used in small appliances to avoid mineral buildup. Distilled water has a laboratory, industrial, medicinal and perfumery, and food processing uses. It can however be used as the most preferable type of water in these industries. Using it as drinking water falls into the last category and should not be seen as an alternative to other types of drinking water due to the lack of essential minerals. Fun fact is that at most, 8 glasses of hard distilled water only fulfills 15% of the organic minerals calcium and magnesium daily, which are the minerals that comprise most of our daily allowance. Reverse Osmosis These types of systems are becoming more popular as customers are becoming aware of the quality of water they drink. Reverse Osmosis systems usually include 3-6 water treatment steps, all residing under your sink. Reverse osmosis systems begin with a physical filtration step and carbon block filtration to remove both suspended matter, chlorine, and dissolved organic matter. The water then undergoes a Reverse Osmosis step which uses water pressure to “push” only (almost) H2O through a semipermeable membrane. The Reverse Osmosis Membrane process removes over 98% of dissolved matter from the water, making the water essentially distilled or very close to pure H2O. After the membrane process, water is sometimes post-treated to improve taste and add minerals, is stored in a plastic-lined tank beneath the sink, and dispensed via a tap or dispenser, which resides above the sink. Water produced by Reverse Osmosis is almost distilled meaning that all toxins AND beneficial compounds have been removed. Drinking these depleted waters is not recommended by the World Health Organization because nutritious elements such as Calcium and Magnesium along with trace elements have been removed from the water. Distilled water is also “hungry” wanting to dissolve anything it comes by. This can be plastic piping, heavy metals from bad fittings, and other contaminants. Leaving distilled water in the under sink tank is also an issue because the water stagnates in a plastic-lined tank. Many reverse osmosis systems integrate another activated charcoal filter to remove bad taste usually originating from storing almost distilled water in a plastic tank. A little known fact is the Egyptians discovered that storing water in charcoal, made it stay fresher and taste better, carbon has been a standard feature in water treatment and its centuries of popularity are testament to its effectiveness. Activated charcoal filters come in different shapes and sizes. There are some well-known offers on the markets in different configurations. Most well-known are the pitcher filters but carbon filters can also be found in under-the-sink, gravity-fed, and water bar systems. Activated charcoal is a great solution for removing chlorine and organic compounds from drinking water. Due to its humongous surface area (one pound of activated carbon contains a surface area of approximately 100 acres!) and the ability for chemical adsorption, chlorine is reduced and volatile organics which can include pesticide residues and others are adsorbed to the filter. Through this technology, bad tastes and odors, coming from chlorine and organic material are also neutralized. Many times activated charcoal is the second step of a multi-step treatment process which may also include physical filtration through polypropylene candle filters and ceramic microfiltration. Point of Use (PoU) reverse osmosis systems also use activated charcoal pre-filtration steps to neutralize chlorine as reverse osmosis membranes are easily damaged by chlorine. Activated charcoal filters by themselves are usually not effective at removing minerals and dissolved inorganic compounds. This is both good and bad. The good part is that nutritious minerals from your tap water pass through the filter but contaminants such as heavy metals (Lead, Mercury, Arsenic, and more) are left in the water. Because of this, many champions selling activated charcoal also include specialized resins for removing inorganics. These are usually legacy IP and should be evaluated separately. Another serious drawback of activated charcoal as a stand-alone filter comes from the reaction between adsorbed organic matter and activated chlorine. When these two react, they produce Trihalomethanes (THMs) such as chloroform and other disinfection byproducts known to be carcinogenic. The best way to minimize exposure to these bad boys is to change your activated carbon filter at vendor-recommended intervals and not keep an activated charcoal filter on your system for months on end. If your drinking water source is a lake or river, the risk of THM production is much higher due to the higher concentration of organic matter present. Distilled Water Distilled water is a type of purified water that has gone through the distillation process and removes contaminants as well as natural minerals, however, a little-known fact is that it is best used in small appliances to avoid mineral buildup. Distilled water has a laboratory, industrial, medicinal and perfumery, and food processing uses. It can however be used as the most preferable type of water in these industries. Using it as drinking water falls into the last category and should not be seen as an alternative to other types of drinking water due to the lack of essential minerals. Fun fact is that at most, 8 glasses of hard distilled water only fulfills 15% of the organic minerals calcium and magnesium daily, which are the minerals that comprise most of our daily allowance. Reverse Osmosis These types of systems are becoming more popular as customers are becoming aware of the quality of water they drink. Reverse Osmosis systems usually include 3-6 water treatment steps, all residing under your sink. Reverse osmosis systems begin with a physical filtration step and carbon block filtration to remove both suspended matter, chlorine, and dissolved organic matter. The water then undergoes a Reverse Osmosis step which uses water pressure to “push” only (almost) H2O through a semipermeable membrane. The Reverse Osmosis Membrane process removes over 98% of dissolved matter from the water, making the water essentially distilled or very close to pure H2O. After the membrane process, water is sometimes post-treated to improve taste and add minerals, is stored in a plastic-lined tank beneath the sink, and dispensed via a tap or dispenser, which resides above the sink. Water produced by Reverse Osmosis is almost distilled meaning that all toxins AND beneficial compounds have been removed. Drinking these depleted waters is not recommended by the World Health Organization because nutritious elements such as Calcium and Magnesium along with trace elements have been removed from the water. Distilled water is also “hungry” wanting to dissolve anything it comes by. This can be plastic piping, heavy metals from bad fittings, and other contaminants. Leaving distilled water in the under sink tank is also an issue because the water stagnates in a plastic-lined tank. Many reverse osmosis systems integrate another activated charcoal filter to remove bad taste usually originating from storing almost distilled water in a plastic tank. Recap Which type of water filter you choose for your home is up to your personal values, lifestyle and understanding. There are some players out there today that are trying to solve the problem of both the lack of knowledge as to the quality of tap water at your home, while other companies are working to produce specialized filters and water treatment systems to improve on current standards. This way or another, knowing what’s in your tap water would be the ultimate first step in understanding and minding it.
Understanding the Minerals in Tap Water—Are They Healthy?

Water Quality

Understanding the Minerals in Tap Water—Are They Healthy?
Many years ago, people began questioning the quality of public tap water. Since then, there has been a growing interest in the health and safety of our water. Rightly so, seeing as though it is an essential fluid. Over the years, people have begun giving up tap water for bottled water due to these concerns. However, water regulation and treatment technologies have drastically improved during this period, and the quality of tap water is better today than it used to be. Does Tap Water Contain Minerals? The water that flows out your tap comes from either surface or underground water sources. In most countries, tap water needs to meet strict standards which regulate and limit the number of contaminants present in the water supplied to residential homes. Some countries have stricter regulations and procedures to verify that these requirements are being met, while others have unsafe drinking water. Tap water generally contains naturally occurring and added minerals to support our health, and some tap water is considered “hard water” because it has higher mineral contents. Are Minerals in Your Tap Water Healthy? Tap water contains several minerals that are naturally dissolved into the water at its source. These minerals are healthy and aid in overall well-being. Minerals are essential for the basic functioning of the human body and help regulate fluids, control bone growth, keep up metabolism, normalize muscle and nerve functions, and grow connective tissue. While water contains essential minerals, our main source of minerals comes from our diet. So, while the minerals in water play a role in our health, they are not absolutely necessary. Our main reason for drinking water is to stay hydrated and help our bodies process the minerals and vitamins we get from our food. The Mineral Content of Tap Water Provided the water is safe and clean for drinking, it will contain trace amounts of minerals and other compounds like chlorine, chloramine, and contaminants that are not deemed dangerous for human health. One of the minerals added to tap water is fluoride, which helps strengthen your teeth and prevent tooth decay by up to 25%, according to the CDC. The other minerals in tap water include copper, magnesium, calcium, and sodium. The Nutrient Data Laboratory carried out a study on the mineral content of tap water and found that only four minerals (besides fluoride) contribute to our daily dietary intake. They concluded that drinking a quart of tap water provides about 1% of the daily required copper, calcium, magnesium, and sodium intake. Calcium Essential for healthy teeth and strong bones and plays a vital role in cell growth, the production of hormones, and blood clotting.Magnesium This mineral is also needed for strong bones, as well as energy metabolism, and the structure and functioning of muscles.Sodium Sodium is essential for balancing the fluids in the body and regulating blood pressure.Copper This mineral is crucial for forming bone and connective tissue, the functioning of the immune system, and blood clotting. There are a few other minerals found in trace amounts, including potassium, phosphorus, iron, selenium, zinc, and chromium. However, you would need to drink copious amounts of water for these to contribute to your daily mineral intake. Removing Minerals From Your Tap Water Sometimes, people may want to remove minerals from their water because they may form deposits that can restrict water flow or corrode pipes, leading to rust-polluted drinking water. Another common reason for wanting to filter tap water is to eliminate any contaminants and bacteria present, which will automatically filter out the minerals in the water. Minerals can be removed with the following methods: Water softeners Water softeners remove the minerals that make the water “hard” in the first place with an ion exchange process that replaces magnesium and calcium ions with potassium or sodium ions.Reverse osmosis Reverse osmosis removes minerals that have larger molecules than water by pushing water under pressure through a specialized, semi-permeable membrane. This membrane filters out contaminants, toxins, and minerals. However, removing contaminants this way may sometimes leave a fishy smell. Can You Remove Minerals in Your Water by Boiling It? The general answer is no. Boiling water can help to kill any harmful bacteria in tap water, but even if the water is boiled to over 212 degrees Fahrenheit, it won’t destroy or remove any of the minerals. The Minerals in Tap Water Tap water is generally considered safe to drink, but many people prefer to filter their water to remove contaminants and bacteria. Tap water contains small amounts of minerals that can aid your overall health, but they are also not completely necessary because most of our mineral intake comes from the food we eat. That being said, if you'd like to gain the benefits of mineral water, read our guide to making mineral water at home.

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