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Everything There Is to Know About Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water
Water qualityEverything There Is to Know About Trihalomethanes in Drinking WaterTrihalomethanes are a group of volatile and potentially toxic chemical compounds formed when water is treated with chlorine, which then reacts with organic matter in water. Trihalomethane compounds are colorless and evaporate from the water into the air. At elevated levels, trihalomethanes have been associated with negative health effects like cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes. We have outlined everything there is to know about trihalomethanes in this post. Examples of Trihalomethanes There are four significant trihalomethanes found in disinfected drinking water, and their combined concentration is known as total trihalomethanes (TTHM). To understand trihalomethanes, it is important to first consider methane, which is a single carbon with four bonds linked to four hydrogen molecules (CH₄). To make a trihalomethane, three of those hydrogen atoms are removed and replaced with three halogens. A halogen is any element from the seventeenth column of the periodic table. If all three of the substituted halogens are chlorides, it creates chloroform (CHCI₃). If all three molecules are bromide, it creates bromoform (CHBr₃). One bromide and two chlorides make bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl₂). Therefore, trihalomethanes are a group of four chemicals: bromoform, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and dibromochloromethane. Bromoform Bromoform is a colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. It is denser than water and slightly soluble. It has been classified as a human carcinogen and is toxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption.Bromodichloromethane Bromodichloromethane is colorless and dissolves in water but also quickly evaporates into the air. Bromodichloromethane was formerly used as a flame retardant or solvent for fats and waxes because of its high density for mineral separation. It is harmful if ingested and causes liver and kidney damage.Chloroform Chloroform is a colorless liquid that quickly evaporates into a gas. Chloroform is harmful to the eyes, skin, liver, kidneys, and nervous system. These chemical compounds can be toxic if swallowed or inhaled, and exposure to chloroform could also cause cancer.Dibromochloromethane Dibromochloromethane is a colorless to yellow liquid with a sweetish odor. It has been classified as a possible human carcinogen. How Do Trihalomethanes Affect the Human Body? The standards of drinking water are called maximum contaminant level or MCL. MCLs have been put in place to reduce the risk of chemicals in drinking water. Some MCLs limit the levels of chemicals that pose a long-term risk, and others limit the daily amount consumed for chemicals that pose an immediate risk. The trihalomethane MCL is set at a safe level that balances long-term health risks but also keeps the drinking water safe from bacterial contamination. The Environmental Protection Agency has stated that the maximum level of trihalomethanes in large surface public water systems is 80 parts per billion. Individuals could be exposed to trihalomethanes in water by ingesting them or absorbing them through the skin. Trihalomethanes easily vaporize into the air, so inhalation exposure to these compounds can be significant, especially when bathing and showering. High levels of trihalomethanes are dangerous. Trihalomethanes have been associated with negative health effects. People who consume trihalomethanes over many years have an increased risk of developing cancer. These chlorination by-products have also been linked to heart, lung, liver, kidney, and central nervous system damage. Pregnant women are also at a greater risk as trihalomethanes have been shown to negatively impact reproduction and cause miscarriages. Can You Remove Trihalomethanes From Drinking Water? Fortunately, trihalomethanes can be removed from drinking water. The easiest way to reduce or eliminate trihalomethanes from drinking water is to use a water pitcher with a carbon filter or install a tap-mounted carbon filter. Other methods include reverse osmosis, enhanced coagulation, UV filters, and water softeners. In Summary The chlorination process is essential for purifying water to make it safe for human consumption. The levels of chlorine in water are carefully monitored to ensure they remain at a safe standard. However, the chlorination process also produces trihalomethanes, which can be harmful to human health. Trihalomethanes are known carcinogens and increase the risk of cancer and miscarriage in pregnant women. It is recommended to have your water tested to see the level of trihalomethanes.
How to Remove Trihalomethanes From Drinking Water
Water qualityHow to Remove Trihalomethanes From Drinking WaterTrihalomethanes (THMs) form when chlorine reacts with the organic matter in water. The four trihalomethanes are bromoform, bromodichloromethane, chloroform, and dibromochloromethane. Trihalomethanes are dangerous at elevated levels and have been shown to increase the risk of cancer, miscarriages, pregnancy issues, and heart, lung, liver, kidney, and central nervous system damage. In this post, we have outlined the best methods for removing trihalomethanes from your drinking water. How Are You Exposed to THMs in Drinking Water? You can be exposed to trihalomethanes by consuming water through a public water supply, using tap water for cooking, or absorbing it through the skin. Trihalomethanes vaporize into the air, so exposure to these compounds can also occur through inhalation, especially when showering and bathing. How to Get Rid of THMs in Water There are various methods you can use to remove trihalomethanes from your drinking water. Enhanced Coagulation This method is the best option for controlling the level of THMs at a water treatment plant and removing the precursors by enhancing coagulation. The enhanced coagulation process optimizes the filtration process to maximize the elimination of precursors. This is done by reducing the pH level to as low as 4, using ferric coagulants instead of alum, and increasing the coagulant’s feed rates. Carbon Filters This is one of the most convenient ways to eliminate THMs in your tap water. Carbon filtration uses charcoal or activated carbon to remove contaminants. Carbon filtration can be done using a water pitcher with a carbon filter or installing carbon filters on your taps. Activated charcoal can also be used in your whole house's water filtration system. When purchasing a carbon filter, ensure it is certified to remove THMs. Reverse Osmosis Reverse osmosis water filtration systems also work well to remove THMs from water. The reverse osmosis process involves water being pushed through a semipermeable membrane that filters out unwanted particles and contaminants. Reverse osmosis removes THMs, lead, chlorine, fluoride, pesticides, chloramine, detergents, etc. Boiling Boiling your water is a simple method to drastically reduce the levels of trihalomethane in your water. Boiling water for one minute can reduce the trihalomethane concentrate by 75 percent. Boiling water for five minutes removes 100 percent of the trihalomethanes. How Do I Know How Many THMs Are in My Water? You can test your water for trihalomethanes using the following methods. Observational Self-Testing This testing is done through simple observations that you can make using your own senses like taste and smell. The obvious signs of high trihalomethane levels are a strong chlorine smell or the water smelling like diluted pond or lake water. DIY Water Testing After observing the water, you can use a testing kit to confirm if your observations were correct. Most testing kits consist of dip tests that will allow you to monitor the THM levels in your water. Information Water Testing This is done by an accredited water testing laboratory. You can order a testing kit to prepare a sample to submit to a lab. By using a lab, you can trust that a certified water expert will analyze your sample. Certified Water Testing This option involves a water professional visiting your home to prepare the sample and then sending it to a lab for testing. This form of testing will give you the highest level of assurance in the accuracy of your test results. This option can also be used in legal cases. In Summary If you have high levels of trihalomethanes in your drinking water, you can begin by using the above methods to purify your water. Carbon filtration is considered to be the most thorough when it comes to removing chemical compounds. Other options consist of working with an authority or water company to flush the lines.
How to Remove Chlorine From Your Tap Water
Water qualityHow to Remove Chlorine From Your Tap WaterChlorine is one of the most commonly produced chemicals in the United States. Chlorine is a chemical element and is one of the most common substances on earth. Chlorine is a common ingredient in many products because of its disinfecting and bleaching abilities. This is why chlorine is used in swimming pools and drinking water—it kills bacteria and keeps the water clean. Most water treatment plants use chlorine to disinfect their water. When added in the right amounts, chlorine effectively kills bacteria and viruses. When mixed with other elements, chlorine is quite safe. Pure chlorine is very rare and takes the form of a yellow-green gas. This gas is very poisonous and can even be lethal. How to Test if There Is Chlorine in Your Tap Water The easiest way to test the chlorine levels in your tap water is to use test strips. It is as simple as filling a glass with tap water, following the instructions on how to dip the strip, waiting a few seconds for the indicator color to appear, and then comparing the color to the chart provided. Chlorine test strips can be purchased from any pool shop or local grocery store. How to Measure the Amount of Chlorine in Water Chlorine test strips can tell you the chlorine level in your tap water, but understanding these results can be tricky. The level of chlorine is measured in parts per million (PPM). The optimal concentration of chlorine in drinking water is between 0.2 PPM and 4 PPM. Anything over 4 PPM can cause negative health effects. After dipping the strip into a glass of water, you need to interpret the test strip results: 0 PPM: Not optimal This means the water has not been disinfected and could contain bacteria and viruses.0.5 PPM: Optimal This level ensures that the water will remain bacteria-free, even if new bacteria are introduced.1 PPM: Good This level ensures that water will remain bacteria-free, even if new bacteria are introduced.2 PPM: Not optimal This level means that the water will have an unpleasant taste and odor.More than 2 PPM: Dangerous While chlorine water is not considered dangerous until it reaches over 4 PPM, water with a level of 2 PPM and above will taste and smell like chemicals. Long-term consumption could have negative health effects. How to Get Chlorine Out of Water There are a few different methods of removing chlorine from your water, including: Boiling Your Water Boiling water for 15 minutes will release all the chlorine from your tap water. At room temperature, chlorine weighs less than air and will automatically evaporate off without boiling. However, boiling the water speeds up the chlorine removal process. Reverse Osmosis The process of reverse osmosis effectively removes up to 98 percent of chlorine in drinking water. During this process, water is pushed through a very fine membrane that catches harmful compounds. Ultraviolet Light Ultraviolet radiation is an effective way to remove chlorine and destroy chloramines through photodegradation or photolysis. Photodegradation is the process in which harmful compounds like chlorine are broken down by light, particularly UV light or sunlight. Ultraviolet light can also be used to make structured water, which contains less chlorine. Carbon Filters Activated carbon filters are very effective at removing chlorine from drinking water. When the water flows through the active carbon filters, the chemicals stick to the carbon. This results in purer water. Can You Remove Chlorine From Water Without a Filter? If you don’t have a water filter, you can leave your drinking water to stand. Chlorine is a compound that will evaporate from standing water if the air is warm enough. Chlorine is considered to be extremely volatile and will evaporate from your drinking water without much issue, but the time it takes to do so is dependent on a few factors. The effectiveness of removing chlorine from drinking water depends on variables like the water temperature, air temperature, pH, the shape and size of the container, how much water is exposed to the air, and the chlorine content. In general, 2 PPM of chlorine will take up to four and a half days or around 110 hours to evaporate from 10 gallons of standing water. In Summary Chlorine is used in drinking water to purify it and kill harmful microorganisms. Governmental organizations carefully monitor chlorine levels in drinking water to ensure it is safe for human consumption. However, if you want to remove chlorine from your drinking water, it can be done using a few different methods, including boiling, filters, and letting it stand.
“Drinking Water the Way Nature Intended: The Story of Mayu Water”

Interview With Shay and Ze’Ev, Mayu Water Founders, (October 21, 2021).
Water quality“Drinking Water the Way Nature Intended: The Story of Mayu Water” Interview With Shay and Ze’Ev, Mayu Water Founders, (October 21, 2021). Have You Ever Given Much Thought About the Water You Drink? We tend to focus more on the food we eat, ensuring our produce is organic and our meat is grass-fed—all free of toxins and contaminants, just like Nature intended. Yet how many of us think about how Nature intended us to drink our water? Take a moment to envision how water is found in natural settings. Imagine a river, a creek, or a spring. In Nature, water is always flowing, moving, and swirling. Even in large bodies of water, water always has an undercurrent of movement. As water flows, it collects minerals from the Earth. Water from a spring or a river isn’t just H2O molecules—it’s full of minerals like magnesium, sodium, zinc, and potassium that all have health benefits. Now imagine the water that comes out of your tap. To make its way to your home, it had to go through a water treatment process and long distances of pipes, where the water travels in straight lines and isn’t allowed its natural tendency to swirl. You might be asking why it’s important to drink water that has been allowed to move the way Nature intended. Let’s dive into that now! The Significance of Water Your body is made up of 60% water. Water is important for nearly every function in your body. While you get a lot of your hydration from the foods you eat, the quality of water you drink matters significantly. Unfortunately, many of our natural water sources are heavily contaminated, necessitating water treatments before ending up in our homes as tap water. However, tap water still contains a large number of contaminants, like pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and microplastics, which means we should be further filtering our tap water at home to safeguard our health. Yet because of all this filtration, tap water loses its natural “structure” and has been stripped of its mineral content. These minerals are necessary for your body’s cellular processes as well, and they’re an essential component of drinking water. To drink water the way Nature intended, it’s important to drink “structured” water that contains minerals. What Is Structured Water? “Structured” or “living” water is water that forms hexagonal, honeycomb-shaped lattices (identifiable via microscopy) as it flows, spirals, and aerates in natural water sources like springs. This structured water acts like a gel inside living cells, which allows it to have more cell-hydrating capabilities than plain tap water. Structured water is also found in plants (like your fruits and vegetables) as well as your own living cells. However, chemical sanitation and filtration de-structures water, rendering it essentially “lifeless,” as it has lost the living chemical structure that Nature imbued into it. So while filtered water is much healthier than tap water, it’s still not providing you with the benefits of living, structured water. So how can you restore structure to your tap water in alignment with the way water exists in Nature? The answer to this comes from Mayu Water, a company who is revolutionizing the way we drink water! The Story of Mayu Water I had the pleasure of meeting with Shay and Ze’ev, the founders of Mayu Water—virtually, of course, as they are located across the Mediterranean Sea in a tiny village in Israel. Shay and Ze’ev’s journey started when they set out to provide their young children with the best water possible. They realized we often give a lot of thought to what eat and what we put in our bodies, but we don’t put that same thought into the water we drink even though we consume a lot of water. In Israel (and many other parts of the world), much of the pipelines are filled with contaminants like asbestos and lead. These contaminants make their way into our drinking water, which is why filtering your water is so important. Ze’ev knew his tap water was full of these contaminants, so he started experimenting with different water filters. Even though he purified their water for his family, his 1-year-old daughter still didn’t want to drink it. He started to realize that the water must be missing something. So he and Shay eventually realized that what was needed was Nature’s influence on the water. Drinking Water the Way Nature Intended Shay and Ze’ev realized that water is always flowing, moving, and swirling in its natural settings.But what was the significance of this motion? They learned that the complex swirling motion of water creates aeration, which infuses oxygen back into the water. This swirling motion also aerates out carbon dioxide and volatile compounds like chlorine, naturally purifying it. Water also carries elements like minerals from one place to another as it travels, as it is the "blood of Earth,” as Shay so poetically worded. The combination of swirling and mineralization changes the taste of the water, making it naturally sweet and silky. Without minerals, water is like “an unripe fruit,” said Ze’ev. Water’s intrinsic movement allows it to pick up minerals as it travels. Yet water interacts with everything it comes into contact with, including pipes and contaminants we wouldn’t want to be drinking. The other problem with pipes is that they’re in a straight line. These pipes not only contaminate the water, but they confine water to a straight path that doesn’t allow it to swirl and aerate. So Shay and Ze’ev created the Mayu Swirl to mimic drinking water from a flowing river. The motion of the Mayu Swirl reflects the natural movement of a spring or river, restoring the inherent structure of water—the way Nature intended! The Wisdom of Nature Through their journey discovering how to create water the way Nature intended, Shay and Ze’ev fell in love with water. They began to see water as having its own intelligence, just like the rest of the natural world, and rediscovered the beautiful connection between water and human beings. They also noted the importance of cherishing water—that this influences how we absorb and assimilate water in our bodies. Shay and Ze’ev recognize that everything in Nature has a reason and is ultimately perfect in its expression; simultaneously beautiful and efficient. Water is one of these perfect expressions of Nature. Shay and Ze’ev designed the Mayu Swirl with high-quality materials that allow the water to be seen and to “give the water its full stage.” Just like watching a river flow, watching the swirling water in their Mayu Swirl has its own mesmerizing beauty. Their children will even stop and watch it, and ask to taste the water simply because it’s movement is so appealing to them. Nature’s wisdom is evident when you break down the water cycle and see how simple, efficient, and extraordinary it really is. In their own wisdom, Mayu Water designed their products to replicate Nature’s beautiful design. How Mayu Water Replicates Nature’s Design In Nature, water goes through a circular 3-phase cycle of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. As liquid water evaporates into the sky, it is naturally purified by the sun. The solids in the water stay behind as the water vapor rises—a natural filtration system! Water vapor condenses to form clouds (condensation). As water droplets accumulate in the clouds, the water absorbs minerals from the air. As it rains (precipitation), the raindrops keep absorbing elements in the air as they fall and then in the ground as the rainwater travels along the Earth. As the water flows and swirls on the Earth, it aerates, remineralizes, and becomes more structured—essentially infused with life. Mayu Water replicates Nature’s water cycle with their own 3-step process you can do at home: Purify the water (mimics evaporation): Filter your water with a high-quality filtration or reverse osmosis system to remove all the contaminants that water has picked up along its journey to your home.Remineralize (mimics condensation and water’s natural mineralization process): Add trace minerals back into your water.Aeration (mimics precipitation and water’s natural swirling process): Use the Mayu Swirl to swirl and aerate your water, restoring its innate structure. To swirl your water with the Mayu Swirl, simply fill the glass carafe up to the line (1.5 liters) and then add in liquid minerals before swirling. The mineral dissolve quickly in the water while it swirls for about 7-10 minutes. Mayu Water designed their mineral drops to align with the specific mineral composition of a spring without any preservatives or additives. Their concentrated trace mineral supplement allows for the structured water to come out to a similar concentration as a natural spring. Shay emphasized that it doesn’t matter where you live on this planet, that if you do the 3 steps outlined above, “you can have the same quality of water anywhere, everywhere.” Mayu Water’s Mission Mayu Water’s mission is to improve the “lives of people around the world by improving their connection to water.” Their goal is to help people all over the world drink water as Nature intended, no matter what quality of water they have available to them. Even if you don’t live by a spring, you can still have the ability to drink delicious, high-quality spring water. Shay and Ze’ev also wish to help humanity reduce their reliance on single-use plastic water bottles and the stress this puts on natural water sources. By creating your own spring water at home, there’s no need to purchase bottled water. Drinking high-quality water like that created from a Mayu Swirl can improve your health—as well as improving the health of all humanity and the Earth. By revolutionizing the way we drink water in a way that is both fun and fulfilling, we reconnect to water and honor it sacredness. In the process, reconnecting to water allows us to reconnect with all of Nature—and there’s profound healing in this reconnection. For you are of this Earth, and the Earth already has all the tools you could ever need to heal…including water. Get our Swirl and see for yourself.
Aeration - On a Chemical Level
Structured waterAeration - On a Chemical LevelIn order to explore the science behind Mayu Water, we will refer to two key premises. Biomimicry is the concept that the earth's natural mechanisms provide the most efficient and elegant methods for life to thrive. In other words, emulating nature's intelligence will provide optimal results. The Human Angle - Body and Soul Life cannot exist without water, that is a universal and basic law of nature. The importance of hydration cannot be overstated. Aeration - On a Chemical Level Atmospheric Oxygen - In; CO2 - Out. What Is Aeration? Aeration is the process of bringing water and air into close contact. Aeration influences the water’s physical and chemical characteristics as well as taste, odor, texture, and overall quality. A flowing motion rejuvenates the water, allows it to absorb atmospheric oxygen, and gives the water its native living structure. How Does It Work? The swirling motion introduces atmospheric air into the water, allowing fresh oxygen to dissolve within it. The interface of water and air, expanded by the vortex motion, allows for increased gas exchange and air circulation, causing volatile compounds to release from the water and fresh oxygen to diffuse in. Fresh Oxygen Is Vital to the Quality of Water The benefits of aeration have been verified by the World Health Organization and other prominent institutions. The swirling motion – a transfer between gas and water takes place as we affect the surface and bring in oxygen. Simultaneously, undesirable compounds are released and evaporate. CO2 embedded in the water, for example, evaporates — and through this process, pH levels in the water are elevated. How Exactly Does This Happen? the swirling motion causes the aqueous CO2 (carbon dioxide) to become gas CO2 and leaves the water: CO2 (aq)->CO2 (gas).Carbonic acid (H2CO3) in the water then creates CO2 according to this reaction: H2CO3 ->CO2 + H2O.Bicarbonate (HCO3–) in the water creates carbonic acid (H2CO3) according to this: HCO3– + H+->H2CO3. The net result: H+ (an acid) is consumed, and pH levels go up. The swirling aeration process helps evaporate and remove dissolved toxic gases and volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as radon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen trichloride, trihalomethanes, trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene, chlorine, ammonia, methane, volatile organics (MTBE, PCE, TCE, toluene, and other industrial solvents). These substances are all considered hazardous materials and potentially dangerous when consumed in excess. It’s important to emphasize that the Mayu Swirl does NOT filter or purify drinking water. We highly recommend using a good filter to make sure you start with pure H2O. Taste - Aerated Water Tastes and Feels Better The chemical and natural processes described above bring the water to its optimized neutral state — that is, pH balanced, rejuvenated, and revitalized. In a double-blind taste test, 87% of subjects in our experiment perceived a clear, unmistakably improved, and almost sweet taste when compared to non-aerated water (interestingly, child samplers were particularly perceptive to the differences in water quality). Other studies have confirmed that swirled water is indeed sweeter and more delicious. Aeration balances the water’s pH level, quantifiably improving its taste, odor, and overall quality. Get our Swirl and see for yourself.

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